Publications

  • Combating proliferation financing: A European Banking Perspective

    25 May 2018

    The issue of financing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has gained momentum recently as a result of international disputes over the nuclear armament programmes of Iran and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The European Union (EU), as part of wider efforts by the international community, has put in place a complex regime to prevent and combat the financing of WMD proliferation. This regime can be characterized as a new hybrid, with elements borrowed from the conventional financial sanctions and the anti-money laundering/ combating the financing of terrorism regimes. This paper addresses the practical implementation difficulties of the EU’s anti-proliferation financing regime and the role that the banking sector can play in the fight against WMD proliferation and its financing. It argues that—next to national export control measures aimed at restricting the illicit transfer of proliferation-related goods and services—financial measures can only play a limited role, because banks are not provided with adequately updated and actionable information on proliferators by the competent authorities.

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  • 2017 Survey of national development banks - WBG / WFDFI

    14 May 2018

    This paper presents the main findings of the 2017 survey on national DBs that the World Bank Group (WBG) conducted in collaboration with the World Federation of Development Financing Institutions (WFDFI). This is the second survey that the WBG has prepared; the first was published in early 2012. Sixty-four DBs from different parts of the world, mainly from middle-income countries, participated in the survey.

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  • World Bank report: State ownership of financial institutions in Europe and Central Asia (English)

    5 April 2018

    This paper introduces key findings from a new cross-country survey on state-owned financial institutions in Europe and Central Asia. It covers 41 such institutions operating in the region as of end 2016, and considers variables in the areas of mandates, instruments, performance, governance, and monitoring/evaluation. It presents results over the period following the global financial crisis up to 2015, distinguishes between state-owned commercial and development financial institutions, and looks at differences among three geographical sub-regions.

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  • EAPB annual report 2016

    16 October 2017

    2016 continued to be a challenging year for the European banking sector. The EU financial sector faced various pitfalls to fulfil their role as lenders to the real economy, such as the low interest rate environment, the business changes brought about by digitalization and the high costs stemming from regulatory compliance. In this context the European Central Bank has acknowledged important lacks in public investment and has called for measures to address this issue.

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  • High level principles for banks’ feedback on SME credit applications

    8 June 2017

    The SME sector is a major contributor to growth and employment in the European Union. Banks play a key role in helping businesses to start, trade and grow. Access to finance along with other services and support facilitates the success of enterprises and the creation of jobs. Based on long standing preferences and relationships, European SMEs have chosen bank financing as their main source of external funding. In the wake of the financial crisis, banks have reinforced their strong credit standards amongst others to protect the savings that with which consumers and businesses have entrusted banks with. Banks have also adapted to a very demanding regulatory framework and their business model is evolving. Financial institutions in fact are embracing a digital revolution which can widen the way banks can be accessed.

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